Eleven years earlier
What a set of men you have in Cambridge. Both our
universities put together cannot furnish the like. Why
there is Agassiz - he counts for three.
- Charles Darwin to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1868
Even after he was ousted as the premier naturalist of his age and
the most celebrated man of science in America - even as he suffered,
at age sixty-two, a cerebral hemorrhage that first paralyzed him, then required
him to take to his bed for most of a year, forbidden by his doctors
to smoke his beloved cigars or even to think, either of which they predicted
might kill him - Harvard professor Louis Agassiz never stopped
spinning grand plans or forging ahead with them. Preternaturally ambitious,
a large, vibrant man of murderous industry, deft political skill, and
outsize charm, Agassiz identified himself as no less than a reflection of
the universe, mirroring its magnificence through his ability to observe
and explain the natural world. He also considered himself the herald of
the rapid advance of knowledge in America, his adopted land - an intellectual
high priest for a rising, if still uncertain, world power. And so,
though it had been a year since hed been all but marginalized on campus
following the selection of a new president, Agassiz remained baldly optimistic
about the future.
How could he not? Other than the risks to his health brought on by overwork with each new venture, fortune seemed to favor his every step.
The son of a strong-willed assistant pastor to the Protestant congregation of a lakeside village in French-speaking Switzerland who married well, he was his parents fifth child but the first to survive infancy, and as a student he displayed a rare surplus of talent, energy, imagination, fearlessness, and determination. At twenty-nine, an intrepid adventurer studying glaciers in the Alps, he descended alone at one point 120 feet into a crystal-blue abyss, and mounted at another a massive section of the earths crust that had vaulted upward to almost fourteen thousand feet. He was the first scientist to propose that a prehistoric ice age had gripped the earth, and that extinct giant tropical quadrupeds such as mastodons had been wiped out by a worldwide Siberian freeze. "Their reign was over," he announced. "A sudden intense winter, that was also to last for ages, fell upon our globe."
In an early triumph of paleontology, Agassiz conducted a comprehensive study of every fossil fish in every major collection on the Continent, establishing himself as a tireless investigator and winning him favor with two of Europes most influential naturalists, who delighted in opening doors for him. His bonhomie and good luck were inexhaustible: when his first wife, upset over his obsessive work habits and troubled finances, left him (she later died of tuberculosis), he took off to lecture in America, where Harvard promptly created a scientific school for him and where he married the daughter of a wealthy lawyer, a pillar of New England society.
Yet what most distinguished Agassizs career was his superiority at getting others - not just important individuals and adoring audiences, but institutions and, ultimately, governments - to adopt his outlook and objectives. Less than a decade after he arrived in America in 1846, outsiders began referring to the famous Saturday Club as "Agassizs Club." During the Civil War, he and his so-called Scientific Lazzaroni, a close network self-mockingly named for Florentine beggars, created a national scientific enterprise with themselves in charge, soliciting Congress to found the National Academy of Sciences. Dominated by Agassiz and his allies, it would serve as an equivalent of the French Academy, providing government subsidies, publications, and other spurs to selected research.
Excerpted from Banquet at Delmonico's by Barry Werth. Copyright © 2009 by Barry Werth. Excerpted by permission of Random House, a division of Random House, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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No Man's Land
by Simon Tolkien
Inspired by the experiences of his grandfather, J. R. R. Tolkien, during World War I.
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