Prior to WWII, the novels of German writer Hans Fallada (the pen name Rudolf Ditzen) were international bestsellers, on a par with those of his countrymen Thomas Mann and Herman Hesse. In America, Hollywood even turned his first big novel, Little Man, What Now? into a major motion picture. Once it became known that the movie had been made by a Jewish producer, however, steps were taken to prevent Falladas work being sold outside Germany, and the rising Nazis began to pay him closer attention. When he refused to join the Nazi party he was arrested by the Gestapowho eventually released him, but thereafter regularly summoned him for "discussions" of his work.
Crucially, unlike Mann, Hesse, and others, Fallada refused to flee to safety, even when his British publisher, George Putnam, sent a private boat to rescue him. The pressure took its toll on Fallada, and he resorted increasingly to drugs and alcohol for relief. After Goebbels ordered him to write an anti-Semitic novel he snapped and found himself imprisoned in an asylum for the "criminally insane"considered a death sentence under Nazi rule. To forestall the inevitable, he pretended to write the assignment for Goebbels, while actually composing three encrypted booksincluding his tour de force novel The Drinkerin such dense code that they were not deciphered until long after his death.
Fallada outlasted the Reich and was freed at war's end. But he was a shattered man. To help him recover by putting him to work, his friend Johannes Bechela poet who had became a cultural minister in the post-war governmentgave him the Gestapo file of a simple, working-class couple that had resisted the Nazis. Inspired, Fallada completed Every Man Dies Alone in just twenty-four days.
He died in February 1947, just weeks before the book's publication.
This biography was last updated on 04/10/2010.
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