Please be aware that this discussion guide may contain spoilers!
John Irving writes about his frustration in
trying to determine what The World According to Garp is about. He finally
accepts his young son's conclusion: "The fear of death of the death of
children--or of anyone you love." In your opinion, is this the most overt
theme of the novel?
Feminism comes in many flavors in the novel. The most obvious, perhaps,
are Jenny Field's straightforward brand of feminism, Ellen Jamesian's
embittered, victimized type, and Roberta Muldoon's nurturing,
female-embracing style. But are there other characters who portray less
distinct, murkier shades of feminism? What is feminism in the lives of Helen
Holm, Charlotte the prostitute, Mrs. Ralph, and other women in the novel?
And what does feminism mean to Garp?
How does The World According to Garp ultimately assess the prospects of
understanding between the sexes? Support your opinion with examples from the
In the novel, we read about a variety of biographers' theories on why
Garp stopped writing--and what motivated him to write again--albeit for a
very short-lived time. Helen agreed that Garp's collision with his own
mortality brought him back to his craft. If you were the biographer of T. S.
Garp, what would your theory be?
Garp's vehemence against "political true believers" is a major force of
the novel and he maintains that they are the sworn enemy of the artist. The
Ellen Jamesians are a farcical portrayal of this notion. In your opinion,
what is the relationship between art and politics--and is it possible for
them to successfully coexist?
After the terrible accident in which Duncan is maimed, many pages pass
before Walt's death is acknowledged to the reader. And then, it is given a
tragic-comedic twist; Garp announces in an Alice Fletcher-like lisp that he
"mish him." What was the effect of this narrative device on you? Was the
sorrow intensified or assuaged?
The narrator's voice is ironically detached and almost flippant--even
when delivering the most emotionally charged, heartbreaking moments in the
novel. In what ways does the narrator contrast and play against the novel's
dramatic elements? How is it similar--and different--from the voice of Garp?
People who have read and loved The World According to Garp consistently
comment on the extraordinary ability of the novel to provoke laughter and
tears simultaneously. Was this your experience as well? If so, how do you
think this effect is achieved?
What is the significance of the meta-fiction--the stories within the
story? How does Garp's "writing" voice compare to our perception of him as a
Over the last fifteen years The World According to Garp has entered the
canon of literature. How do you think it is perceived now in comparison to
when it was first published in the late '70s? Is the American moral center
much different today than it was then? For example, despite Garp's and
Helen's indiscretions, their relationship is still portrayed as loving and
supportive. Do you think that today's social climate is as accepting of
these kind of transgressions?
In his afterword, John Irving admits to having been "positively ashamed
of how much lust was in the book. Indeed, every character in the story who
indulges his or her lust is severely punished." How do you feel about that
condemnation? Is the world an arguably more precarious place because of
What do the peripheral characters contribute to the novel? Is there a
common thread they share . . . Mrs. Ralph, the young hippie, Dean Bodger,
Ernie Holm, "Old Tinch," the Fletchers?
The World According to Garp has been heralded as a literary masterpiece
while at the same time enjoying phenomenal commercial success--a rare feat
for a novel. What are the elements of high literary merit in the novel?
Likewise, what aspects of the book land it squarely into the mainstream
consciousness? In your opinion, how is this balance achieved?
Have you read any other John Irving novels? If so, did you find any
similarities between them in style or tone?
Unless otherwise stated, this discussion guide is reprinted with the permission of Ballantine Books.
Any page references refer to a USA edition of the book, usually the trade paperback version, and may vary in other editions.
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