Very Short Histories of
Afghanistan & Iraq
Iraq and Afghanistan are countries with deep histories and multiple ethnic and religious citizen groups.
The geographical area that today is Iraq is regarded by historians as the site of some of the earliest human civilizations, including the Sumerians (who lived between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Mesopotamia, a Greek word meaning land between the two rivers).
The division between the Shia and Sunni elements of Islam began sometime in the late 600s after Arab tribes had taken control of the area from Iranian rulers. After an approximately 500 year Arab dynasty and intervening conflicts with Turkish warriors, the land that is now Iraq became part of the Ottoman Empire in the 1600s and remained so until after World War I. The struggle between Sunni and Shia factions continued during this period.
At the end of World War I, the country of Iraq was carved out of the Ottoman Empire and became a ...